Human resources, regardless of whether they are employees of companies or citizens, include the topic of healthcare.
The health status of the population is a complex variable that depends on a number of factors and is measurable by a variety of different indicators. However, several sets of indicators are considered essential in measuring health status and monitoring existing trends.
First, these are indicators related to average life expectancy and mortality. By these indicators, our country lags far behind the advanced countries, including the EU member states. For example, the average life expectancy in Bulgaria (2002-2004) is 72.4 years (68.9 for men and 76 for women) and is 6.0 years lower for men and 6% for EU countries. 7.3 years in women.
There is no better picture when comparing mortality rates. Infant and maternal mortality over the last 15 years, although declining, does not change our unenviable position towards Central European countries. The level of 11.6 infant mortality rates reached in 2004 is significantly higher than in EU countries, including Poland and Hungary.
Mortality from chronic cardiovascular disease (ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease) is increasing as well as deaths related to traumatic injuries.
Another important group of indicators characterizing the health status of the population is related to the frequency and structure of the reported diseases. Statistics show that 72-75% of all reported cases of diseases in the country in recent years are due to respiratory diseases, followed by diseases of the nervous system and sensory organs, diseases of the circulatory system, injuries and poisonings and skin diseases and subcutaneous tissue. The tendency of the incidence of malignant neoplasms in east European countries is similar to that observed in all European countries.
It should be noted that there are some indicators characterizing the spread of significant diseases that put our country in a more favorable situation. An example is the spread of HIV (AIDS), which for some countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia and Africa is growing significantly, while in Bulgaria this prevalence is currently relatively low.
The number of persons recognized as disabled is also one of the indicators of the nation’s health status. Statistics show that in 2004 they were 133,251, which is almost 3 times more than in 1994 and represents a share of 20.2% of the population over 16. The most common cause of disability in 2004 is diseases. of the circulatory organs.
The general deterioration of the health status of the population is accompanied by some peculiarities which put groups of the population in a less favorable position. Such groups are mostly people from the Roma minority community and also people living in rural areas and in some outskirts of the country.
The economic transition has triggered a severe collapse in the incomes of many people and has led to the creation of a significant group of people living below the poverty line. The characteristics of this group are different, but from the point of view of their health, malnutrition, poor living conditions, reduced access to information and knowledge, as well as the observed reduction in the opportunities to receive the necessary medical assistance are important.
Another important factor in the deterioration of a nation’s health is the unhealthy lifestyle. The combination of determinants is significant here, but all of them lead to an increased risk of a number of diseases. The more important factors in this regard are:
Imbalanced diet The number of overweight and obese people is over 3,000,000 and is steadily increasing;
Reduced physical activity in recent years over 60% of the population aged 25-64 has low and medium physical activity;
Tobacco use in the country in 2001 was 40.5% of the population;
The expanded range of alcohol consumption among adolescents.
The experience of many countries shows that to influence the level of mortality and morbidity from these socially significant diseases, a policy of training and support for people’s aspirations for positive lifestyle changes is needed, as well as creating a social environment that provides the right choice. These changes will help to reduce the number of patients with chronic diseases, reduce mortality rates and increase life expectancy for good health.
The state of health of the nation and the achievement of the projected results will depend both on its present state and on the development of the factors affecting it.
The analyzes made are justified in summarizing some of the main factors and problems affecting the health of the population:
The health status of the population is unsatisfactory and continues to deteriorate.
The ongoing health care reform has increased the overall funding and efficiency of the healthcare system itself.
There are a number of unresolved issues related to health insurance and leading to serious obstacles to free access to health services.
Villagers and Roma are disadvantaged in terms of access to health services.